Preface to the First German EditionThis book dealscomprehensively with the nature of submarines, more specifically,with their planning, design, and construction. The associatedequipment and operation of submarines are treated only whennecessary to understand special construction details. The bookdiscusses the present status of the techniques of submarineconstruction, qfter there have been no new book publications inthis field in Germanyfor decades. Its purpose is to serve as ahandbook for design and construction engineers and shipbuilders andto introduce naval officers to the field of submarine engineering.I would like to thank thosefirms which kindly provided thephotographs. The sketches were made by my colleagues atIngenieurkontor Luebeck. I also would like to thank Mr. H. G. Hahnfor editing the text and Mr. C. Aschmoneit, Federal BuildingDirector, for his review. Luebeck, January 1964
Preface to the Second German EditionSince the publication of thefirst edition, the construc- The new measuring system is in thestate of introduction, tion of military submarines has considerablybeen de- however, the transition period has not yet come to anveloped in the Federal Republic of Germany. An impor- end. For thisreason, the new measuring system has, as a tant number ofsubmarines had been built for the Fed- rule, been applied to thenew edition, and theformer deeral German Navy, and several foreigncountries also signations have been added (n parenthesis. As far asordered submarines from Germany. AN over the world, nautical dataare concerned, the former designations ocean engineering is in astate of quick advancements, such as nautical miles (n. m.), knots(= nautical miles mainly caused by the tasks in connection with oiland gas per hour), and long tons have been usedso that conformitywith the tables of the standard books is maintained. exploitationin continental shelves. Consequently, the improvements anddevelopments of The same also applies to horsepower (H. P.).military submarine construction have adequately been An importantpart of the pictures has also been revised, taken into account inthe new edition which also includes and their number has beenincreased. ocean engineering as far as manned underwater vehicles Iam indebted to the Navies of the Federal Republic of Germany, USA,France, and Canada for their having are concerned. In the revisededition, particular attention has been at- provided adequatedocumentation. tached to the influences of design on'the operationand I also would like to thank Mr. K. Arendt for perusing thehandling of submarines. Due to the restrictions existing text. inGermany, nuclear propulsion systems have only been U. Gablermentioned for comparison, general remarks on weapons Luebeck,January 1978 have been made only as far as the overall design isdirectly influenced by their arrangement.
Preface to the Third German EditionDevelopment in submarinedesign and construction has progressed since the second edition waspublished about six years ago. The improved features have beenincorporated as far as they have been considered to be relevant tothe purpose of this book. Some illustrations have been modified,and some new ones have been added. On the whole, the third editiondepicts the present status of submarine technology. Luebeck, March1985 U. Gabler
Preface to the Second English EditionThe first English editionof this work was published in 1986. It was very well received andhas been out of print for some time. The general demand for atextbook and work of reference in this field has prompted thepreparation of this new edition in English. In order to alterProfessor Gabler's text as little as possible, this editionrepresents an unchanged reprint of the first English edition, thatis Chapters I-XVI, and translation of Professor Abels' new chapterXVII which was added in the fourth German edition. However, assubmarine designs and industrial innovations never stand still,this final chapter has been revised and updated. Professor Gabler'sname is widely revered among submarine designers and engineers, andhis teachings and ideas form the basic tenet still today in acontinuing tradition of lectures on submarine design: University ofHamburg 1959-78 Professor Gabler University of Hamburg 1978-98Professor Abels Technical University Hamburg-Harburg 1998Dr.Ritterhoff Thanks are due to Professor Abels for his assistance inthe preparation of this new edition and to Dr. Sally von Stiinznerfor translation of Chapter XVII into English. Kiel, February 2000J.Ritterhoff
Development of military submarines1. Development up to the endof World War IThe history of submarine construction goes well backinto ancient times. Attempts at controlled submerged cruising weresuccessful even before the machine age. The inventor Wihelm Bauerwas the first submarine designer to understand the technics ofcontrolled submerged cruising. Since he favourably influencedsubsequent designers, we begin with him. For the first time,Wilhelm Bauer dived with \"Brandtaucher\" near Kiel in 1850. After asubmerged accident, he succeeded in making his escape out of thisvehicle. Bauer was very successful with the boat built at St.Petersburg (Leningrad) in 1855. However true underwater vehiclescould not be built until the availability of power plants whichwere not dependent on a steady supply of outside air. The firstboats of this type were propelled by battery-powered electricmotors. Their cruising range depended essentially on the capacityof the storage battery which was charged in port or by an escortship. They were suitable only for brief operations, which werecarried out mainly under water. The following were milestones: 1.In 1887, J. Peral, a Spaniard, built the first submarine providedwith storage batteries. 2. In 1888, ZCdC, a Frenchman, built asimilar boat. 3. In 1902, the Germania Shipyard in Germany builtthe first serviceable vessel with this type of propulsion, i. e.Forelle, who was sold to Russia in 1904. The next stage ofdevelopment was that of self-charging submarines; these werecapable of charging batteries while operating on the surface andhad a separate power plant for surface cruising. Different types ofpropulsion plants (e. g., steam engines or petroleum engines) weretried until, finally, the diesel engine proved to be the mostuseful type of engine for surface cruising. The performancecapability to be reached by the diesel engines made it possible touse these submarines for a variety of purposes. Right from thestart, a structural distinction was made between double-hull andsingle-hull boats. The doublehull boat was more seaworthy forsurface navigation than the single-hull. At the beginning of WorldWar I, all the larger navies had a number of self-containedsubmarines, all of which carried torpedo armament. Milestones inthis development were: 1. In 1899, the French Nantal, the prototypeof the double-hull submarine, was launched. 2. In 1900, several USsubmarines of the Holland class (single hull) were ordered. 3. In1904, an order was placed for construction of the U-I (double hull)at the Germania Shipyard in Kiel. There were many differentopinions regarding the possible uses for submarines. World War Iproved that the self-charging submarine was most effective whenused alone on long-range operations. Long cruises were generallymade on the surface, and the submarine usually submerged only whenthe enemy was sighted during the day. The submarine's main weapon,the torpedo, required that the attack be launched at close range.The submarine could use its torpedoes in a daytime attack whilesubmerged or in a night attack while on the surface. The approachto the enemy went unnoticed by day when the submarine was submergedand using its periscope. A night approach on the surface tookadvantage of the low silhouette. Because of its ability tosubmerge, the submarine could penetrate sea areas controlled by theenemy, escape enemy attacks by diving, and attack any major targetwith its torpedoes. The submarine was capable of carrying othertypes of weapons as well. As a mine layer, it could lay minesunnoticed in places that were inaccessible to surface vessels. Gunsbecame very important in the warfare against merchant ships.Individual submarines were fitted with heavy, armoured guns forengaging land-based targets. The submarine was sometimes used forreconnaissance in cooperation with units of a fleet. It became anextremely dangerous weapon in the hands of a weaker navalpower.
means of waging naval warfare. Thus, Germany became a leader insubmarine development and had the most experience in the use ofsubmarines. The results of German developments were made availableto all navies at the end of the war. Among other things, the bigGerman submarine cruiser became the model for US deep seasubmarines as well as for large Japanese and Russian submarines. Inaccordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, nosubmarines were built or maintained in Germany immediately afterthe war. The Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22 failed to agreeon submarine construction. However, rules were established forcalculating the displacement of submarines. The London NavalConference of 1930 restricted the total submarine tonnage of theUnited States and Great Britain to 150,000 tons and that of Japanto 105,500 tons. The submarine was simply defined as \"a vesseldesigned for use under the surface of the water\". The German-AngloNaval Treaty of 1935 permitted Germany a tonnage equal to that ofGreat Britain, but Germany voluntarily agreed not to exceed 45percent of the British submarine tonnage. In the period between thetwo world wars, developments consisted mainly of improved featuresfor submarines whose basic lines were those of World War I.Air-bubble-free discharge torpedo tubes were introduced. InGermany, the \"wakeless\" torpedoes were developed, and in Japan thesuper-heavy torpedoes. Bottom mines with magnetic fuses, which aredifficult to sweep, were developed in Germany. Light